If the ORC file writer selects a generic compression codec (zlib or snappy), every part of the ORC file except for the Postscript is compressed with that codec. However, one of the requirements for ORC is that the reader be able to skip over compressed bytes without decompressing the entire stream. To manage this, ORC writes compressed streams in chunks with headers as in the figure below. To handle uncompressable data, if the compressed data is larger than the original, the original is stored and the isOriginal flag is set. Each header is 3 bytes long with (compressedLength * 2 + isOriginal) stored as a little endian value. For example, the header for a chunk that compressed to 100,000 bytes would be [0x40, 0x0d, 0x03]. The header for 5 bytes that did not compress would be [0x0b, 0x00, 0x00]. Each compression chunk is compressed independently so that as long as a decompressor starts at the top of a header, it can start decompressing without the previous bytes.

compression streams

The default compression chunk size is 256K, but writers can choose their own value. Larger chunks lead to better compression, but require more memory. The chunk size is recorded in the Postscript so that readers can allocate appropriately sized buffers. Readers are guaranteed that no chunk will expand to more than the compression chunk size.

ORC files without generic compression write each stream directly with no headers.